Client Contact: Gaurav Sant, PhD |


CarbonBuilt, headquartered in Los Angeles, California, has developed a technology capable of utilizing CO2 directly from a flue gas streams to produce precast concrete components – specifically concrete masonry units (CMUs) in this verification.  This technology allows for flexible and adaptable CO2 processing, and is designed for integration with diverse CO2 sources, including those associated with power generation, cement and steel production,  petrochemical industries, as well as bioenergy and novel direct air capture technology. CarbonBuilt’s technology requires no pre- or post-treatment (e.g., carbon capture, purification, or clean-up), operates at ambient pressure and low temperature, and enables CO2 uptake into construction materials.

CarbonBuilt’s technology embeds CO2  into modified concrete mixture formulations in which ordinary portland cement (OPC) is replaced by hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2), produced via hydration of calcium oxide also known as portlandite, and low-cost supplementary cementitious materials . After traditional concrete batching, mixing, forming, and curing processes, precast concrete components are placed into a carbonation chamber where CO2 containing gas is injected. The CO2 reacts with hydrated lime producing calcium carbonate within the product. Calcium carbonate serves as a cementation agent and a CO2 sequestration agent via mineralization of the CO2.

350Solutions has verified the technology according to ISO 14034:2016 ETV and a technology specific verification plan. The objectives and approaches used for this verification were designed to apply these principles and processes to CarbonBuilt’s application for performance verification as presented under the NRG COSIA Carbon XPRIZE competition. The verification provides CarbonBuilt and potential users of the technology with an independent assessment and verification of performance of the technology.

350Solutions verified CarbonBuilt’s Reversa technology according to seven parameters including: operational scale, CO2 conversion efficiency, CO2 utilization and embedded in product, conversion system energy usage, water usage, and CMU 28-day compressive strength for product quality.

Technology Description

  • Technology: Reversa
  • Technology Type: Direct utilization/conversion of CO2 borne in a CO2 dilute flue gas stream to produce precast concrete components
  • Verification Date : 4-15-2021

Verified Performance Summary

  • Operational Scale: 0.34 tonne CO2/carbonation period (24 hours)
  • CO2 utilization: 0.26 tonne CO2/carbonation period (24 hours)
  • CO2 embedded in product: 19.5 kg CO2/tonne concrete
  • CO2 conversion efficiency: 75.6%
  • Energy Usage: 3,704 MJ/batch 282 MJ/tonne concrete
  • Water Usage: 0.28 m3/batch 0.02 m3/tonne concrete
  • CMU 28-day compressive strength: 22.43 MPa
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